Effects of a four-week very low-carbohydrate high-fat diet on biomarkers of inflammation: Non-randomised parallel-group study / L. Cipryan, PB. Maffetone, DJ. Plews, PB. Laursen,
Cipryan, Lukas Department of Human Movement Studies and Human Motion Diagnostic Centre, Ostrava University, Czech Republic. Maffetone, Phil B Independent researcher, USA. Plews, Daniel J Sport Performance Research Institute New Zealand (SPRINZ), Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand. Laursen, Paul B Sport Performance Research Institute New Zealand (SPRINZ), Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand.
BACKGROUND: It is commonly assumed that increased dietary fat and/or caloric excess induces chronic inflammatory processes, since the association between obesity and chronic adipose tissue with systemic inflammation has been shown previously. As far as we know, the reported health benefits of a VLCHF or ketogenic diet have not adequately involved an evaluation of biomarkers of inflammation. AIM: This study investigated the effects of a four-week very low-carbohydrate high-fat (VLCHF) diet in healthy young individuals on biomarkers of inflammation. METHODS: Eighteen moderately trained males (age 23.8 ± 2.1 years) were assigned to two groups. One group switched to a non-standardised VLCHF diet for four weeks, while the second group remained consuming their normal habitual diet (HD). Biomarkers of inflammation (adiponectin, leptin, resistin and interleukin-6) and substrate metabolism (fasting glucose and triacylglyceride concentrations) were analysed from blood at baseline and after four weeks. RESULTS: There was moderate evidence for substantial changes in leptin serum concentrations in the VLCHF group, with small to large decreases compared to the HD group after four weeks (effect size = 0.78, 95% CI 0.42, 0.93, p = 0.008; Bayes Factor10 = 5.70). No substantial between-group change differences over time were found across any other biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: A four-week period of consuming a VLCHF diet in healthy young men was not associated with any considerable changes in markers of inflammation but showed evidence for lowered serum leptin concentrations relative to the HD group.