The investigation of honey bee pesticide poisoning incidents in Czechia / K. Kadlikova, M. Vaclavikova, T. Halesova, M. Kamler, M. Markovic, T. Erban,
Kadlíková, Klára Crop Research Institute, Drnovska 507/73, Prague 6-Ruzyne, CZ-161 06, Czechia; Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Plant Protection, Prague 6-Suchdol, CZ-165 21, Czechia. Vaclavikova, Marta ALS Limited, ALS Czech Republic, Na Harfe 336/9, Prague 9-Vysocany, CZ-190 00, Czechia. Halešová, Taťána ALS Limited, ALS Czech Republic, Na Harfe 336/9, Prague 9-Vysocany, CZ-190 00, Czechia. Kamler, Martin, 1979- Bee Research Institute at Dol, Maslovice-Dol 94, Libcice nad Vltavou, CZ-252 66, Czechia. Markovic, Martin Crop Research Institute, Drnovska 507/73, Prague 6-Ruzyne, CZ-161 06, Czechia. Erban, Tomáš, 1978- Crop Research Institute, Drnovska 507/73, Prague 6-Ruzyne, CZ-161 06, Czechia. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Chemosphere. 2021, roč. 263, č. -, s. 128056. ISSN: 0045-6535; 1879-1298 (online).
Honey bees are major pollinators of crops with high economic value. Thus, bees are considered to be the most important nontarget organisms exposed to adverse effects of plant protection product use. The side effects of pesticides are one of the major factors often linked to colony losses. Fewer studies have researched acute poisoning incidents in comparison to the study of the sublethal effects of pesticides. Here, we compared pesticides in dead/dying bees from suspected poisoning incidents and the suspected crop source according to government protocols. Additionally, we analyzed live bees and bee bread collected from the brood comb to determine recent in-hive contamination. We used sites with no reports of poisoning for reference. Our analysis confirmed that not all of the suspected poisonings correlated with the suspected crop. The most important pesticides related to the poisoning incidents were highly toxic chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, cypermethrin and imidacloprid and slightly toxic prochloraz and thiacloprid. Importantly, poisoning was associated with pesticide cocktail application. Almost all poisoning incidents were investigated in relation to rapeseed. Some sites were found to be heavily contaminated with several pesticides, including a reference site. However, other sites were moderately contaminated despite agricultural use, including rapeseed cultivation sites, which can influence the extent of pesticide use, including tank mixes and other factors. We suggest that the analysis of pesticides in bee bread and in bees from the brood comb is a useful addition to dead bee and suspected crop analysis in poisoning incidents to inform the extent of recent in-hive contamination.