Hypertension and Reproduction / PM. Nilsson, M. Viigimaa, A. Giwercman, R. Cifkova,
Nilsson, Peter M Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. Peter.Nilsson@med.lu.se. Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden. Peter.Nilsson@med.lu.se. Viigimaa, Margus Heart Health Centre of North Estonia Medical Centre, and Centre for Cardiovascular Medicine, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia. Giwercman, Aleksander Department of Translational Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden. Cifková, Renata Center for Cardiovascular Prevention, First Faculty of Medicine and Thomayer Hospital, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic. Department of Medicine II, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many aspects of reproduction have been associated with increased blood pressure and impaired glucose metabolism that reveals a subsequent increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this review is to assess reproductive life factors associated with an increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, e.g., early life programming, sexual, and reproductive health in men and women. RECENT FINDINGS: Impaired fetal growth, with low birth weight adjusted for gestational age, has been found associated with hypertension in adulthood. Erectile dysfunction, currently considered an early diagnostic marker of cardiovascular disease preceding the manifestation of coronary artery disease by several years, frequently coexisting with hypertension, could also be exacerbated by some antihypertensive drugs. Male hypogonadism or subfertility are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy including preeclampsia represent a major cause of maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity, and mortality. The risk of developing preeclampsia can be substantially reduced in women at its high or moderate risk with a low dose of acetylsalicylic acid initiated from 12 weeks of gestation. An increased risk of hypertension in women following invasive-assisted reproductive technologies has been newly observed. Blood pressure elevation has been noticed following contraceptive pill use, around the menopause and in postmenopausal age. Furthermore, drug treatment of hypertension has to be considered as a factor with a potential impact on reproduction (e.g., due to teratogenic drug effects). In summary, a deeper understanding of reproductive life effects on hypertension and metabolic abnormalities may improve prediction of future cardiovascular disease.