Issues of Cardiovascular Risk Management in People With Diabetes in the COVID-19 Era / A. Ceriello, E. Standl, D. Catrinoiu, B. Itzhak, NM. Lalic, D. Rahelic, O. Schnell, J. Škrha, P. Valensi, Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease (D&CVD) EASD Study Group,
Ceriello, Antonio IRCCS MultiMedica, Milan, Italy firstname.lastname@example.org. Standl, Eberhard Forschergruppe Diabetes e.V. at Munich Helmholtz Centre, Munich, Germany. Catrinoiu, Doina Clinical Center of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Ovidius University of Constanta, Constanta, Romania. Itzhak, Baruch Clalit Health Services and Technion Faculty of Medicine, Haifa, Israel. Lalic, Nebojsa M Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. Rahelić, Dario Vuk Vrhovac University Clinic for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Merkur University Hospital, Zagreb, Croatia. University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia. University of Osijek School of Medicine, Osijek, Croatia. Schnell, Oliver Forschergruppe Diabetes e.V. at Munich Helmholtz Centre, Munich, Germany. Škrha, Jan Department of Internal Medicine 3, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. Valensi, Paul Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease (D&CVD) EASD Study Group
Diabetes care. 2020, roč. 43, č. 7, s. 1427-1432. ISSN: 0149-5992; 1935-5548 (online).
People with diabetes compared with people without exhibit worse prognosis if affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induced by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), particularly when compromising metabolic control and concomitant cardiovascular disorders are present. This Perspective seeks to explore newly occurring cardio-renal-pulmonary organ damage induced or aggravated by the disease process of COVID-19 and its implications for the cardiovascular risk management of people with diabetes, especially taking into account potential interactions with mechanisms of cellular intrusion of SARS-CoV-2. Severe infection with SARS-CoV-2 can precipitate myocardial infarction, myocarditis, heart failure, and arrhythmias as well as an acute respiratory distress syndrome and renal failure. They may evolve along with multiorgan failure directly due to SARS-CoV-2-infected endothelial cells and resulting endotheliitis. This complex pathology may bear challenges for the use of most diabetes medications in terms of emerging contraindications that need close monitoring of all people with diabetes diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Whenever possible, continuous glucose monitoring should be implemented to ensure stable metabolic compensation. Patients in the intensive care unit requiring therapy for glycemic control should be handled solely by intravenous insulin using exact dosing with a perfusion device. Although not only ACE inhibitors and angiotensin 2 receptor blockers but also SGLT2 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists, pioglitazone, and probably insulin seem to increase the number of ACE2 receptors on the cells utilized by SARS-CoV-2 for penetration, no evidence presently exists that shows this might be harmful in terms of acquiring or worsening COVID-19. In conclusion, COVID-19 and related cardio-renal-pulmonary damage can profoundly affect cardiovascular risk management of people with diabetes.